Gaelic sports

The business of the Gaelic League

In 1893, Douglas Hyde (later to become the first President of the independent Irish State) and Eoin Mac Neill established the Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge). The aim of the gaelic revival movement spearheaded by the League was to give a sense of Irishness back to the people. It wanted to fight against the erosion of the Irish culture, language and traditional Irish sports. The League also wanted to reintroduce the language back into schools.

Although Hyde wanted the League to remain apolitical, the organization attracted many nationalists. Most of the signatories of the 1916 Proclamation, Ireland’s declaration of Independence during the 1916 rebellion, were members. Indeed, Patrick Pearse, its most well-known leader was the editor of the Gaelic League’s newspaper An Claidheamh Soluis (The Sword of Light).

Douglas Hyde , a founder of the Gaelic League, was a Celtic Scholar and cultural nationalist who later became the first president of Ireland. He was born in Frenchpark, Co Roscommon in 1860 and was the son of a protestant clergyman. While Gaelic was spoken by less than 25% of the population at that time, he learned the language from the people around him and had a fascination for the native culture, and became strongly nationalist. He attended Trinity College, Dublin and was a great student of several languages including German, English and French. He became instrumental to the Gaelic Revival movement. He has been described as “the most Roman Catholic of Protestants, or put the other way around, the most Protestant of Roman Catholics.”


If the ball goes over the crossbar, a point is scored and a white flag is raised by an umpire. A point is scored by either kicking the ball over the crossbar, or fisting it over, in which case the hand must be closed while striking the ball. If the ball goes below the crossbar, a goal , worth three points, is scored, and a green flag is raised by an umpire. A goal is scored by kicking the ball into the net, not by fist passing the ball into it. However, a player can strike the ball into the net with a closed fist if the ball was played to him by another player or came in contact with the post/crossbar/ground prior to connection. The goal is guarded by a goalkeeper. Scores are recorded in the format Goal Total-Point Total. To determine the score-line goals must be converted to points and added to the other points. For example, in a match with a final score of Team A 0Team B 4Team A is the winner with 21 points, as Team B scored only 20 points (4 times 3, plus 8).

ireland Essay

Ireland Geography, Topography, and a Political Perspective There are four provinces in Ireland: Connacht (western Ireland), Munster (southern Ireland), Leinster (eastern Ireland), and Ulster (Northern Ireland). The Republic of Ireland is comprised of the provinces of Connacht, Munster, and Leinster; the province of Ulster is referred to as Northern Ireland and is under Britain’s jurisdiction. Northern and Southern Ireland are differentiated not only by geographical differences, but also by political

Essay on Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland A world of hate supports many conflicts in modern society. Strings of hatred entangle all walks of life. Oftentimes, the most disheartening part of most ongoing hatred is the fact that the people involved do not even know how it began. Since 1170, nothing but hatred, intolerance, and death has surrounding the culture of Northern Ireland. Northern Ireland is a land rich in tradition and pride; the same pride sustains the separation of the Protestants and the Catholics.

The Beauty of Ireland

Ireland has a unique landscape throughout the country where you can visit its beautiful coastal regions, see its magnificent castles and you can visit its famous movie shooting hot spot where movies such as Harry Potter, Braveheart, Game of Thrones and Hellboy were filmed. You can look at the 19th century style towns such as Tullamore, Athlone and Killarney with lots more. No matter where you are in the country, you can experience the traditional food and have fun in the irish pubs. When looking

Recent Winners

Winner Justine Nakase (NUI Galway)

“Cuchulain, and Black!: Race and Performance in the 2016 Easter Rising Commemorations”

This paper explores the casting choices of two major commemorative performances in the 1916 Centenary. RT Centenary and the GAA’s Laochra both traced the evolution of the Irish state, positing the mythic hero Cuchulain as historic origin point. Accordingly, both performances opened on the mythic past before staging key moments in the history of the Irish state. In both productions Cuchulain and mythic Ireland were cast as racially diverse, with black or mixed race Irish men embodying the iconic hero. While this multicultural casting might seem to signal toward an inclusiveness of Ireland’s new migrant and minority ethnic communities, this was undermined by the fact that this diversity on stage was soon replaced by a homogenously white cast. Tracing the long, tangled and gendered histories of Irish racialisation and cross-racial performance, I argue that these commemorative events reflect deeply rooted ideas around nationality, masculinity and race in Ireland. As performance texts Centenary and Laochra thus articulate both the current preoccupations of an increasingly diversifying nation and lingering histories of racial appropriation. While both commemorations attempt to signal toward a more pluralised society they ultimately essentialise the black male body for regenerative consumption by a primarily white Irish audience, thus echoing established tropes of Irish identity rather than forging new ones.

Justine Nakase is a PhD candidate and Irish Research Council-funded scholar at the O’Donoghue Centre for Drama, Theatre and Performance at NUI Galway. Her dissertation examines race and identity in contemporary Irish performance with an emphasis on mixed race and minority ethnic Irish figures. In 2016 she produced #wakingthefeministswest, a season of theatre by Irish women writers from the west of Ireland with support from the O’Donoghue Centre. She is currently co-editing a two-volume collection on Irish women playwrights.

Second Place Dayna Killian (Waterford Institute of Technology)

” The Women of the Abbey: Margaret O’Leary and The Woman (1930) ”

The Abbey Theatre has a long history of controversy surrounding the depiction of Irish womanhood on the national stage. Most recently this argument extended from a preoccupation with misrepresentation into a sustained debate around underrepresentation. A debate immediately followed by the demand for transformation through the rise of the the Feminists’ movement in 2015. This paper contributes to the current conversation by resisting the patriarchal narrative surrounding the Abbey. It does so by considering Margaret O’Leary’s The Woman (1929) as part of a larger historiography which foregrounds the experiences of Irish women in plays submitted to the Abbey by women playwrights, prior to 1950. Ireland in the 1920s and 30s saw the erosion of women’s ability to contribute to the socio-political sphere and within this historical context figures such as O’Leary are revolutionaries who sought to depict the personal destruction that such oppression produces. Situating O’Leary within this environment this paper will contribute to the recuperation of the work of women playwrights who challenged the contemporaneous status quo. After considering the historical climate within which O’Leary lived, it will then explore the depiction of the protagonist of The Woman , Ellen Dunn, trapped within a network of tightly interwoven power relations that works to establish an absolute adherence to a conservative framework of ideological values.

Dayna Killian is a third-year PhD candidate for the Women’ project at Waterford Institute of Technology. Her research is part of the wider the Region’ project at WIT and seeks to recoup the work of women who submitted plays to the Abbey prior to 1950 and to engage with future policy development intended to reduce gender inequality in the theatre sector. Dayna recently attended Notre Dame as a Fulbright visiting researcher where she focused on the work of Margaret O’Leary and The Woman , which was produced by the Abbey in 1930.

Third Place Clara Mallon (UCD)

“Performing Difference: Ex-centric Representations in Pat Kinevane’s Trilogy”

The boundaries of Irish marginalisation define containment as a form of exile. Pat Kinevane’s theatre crosses this boundary and makes that boundary visible, awakening audiences to the connection between the personal and the political throughout. Within his most recent trilogy ( Forgotten, Silent and Underneath ), Kinevane focuses on decentred identities constituted on the fringes of contemporary Irish society. The solo performances can be seen as subverting conventional notions of the ex-centric subject as silenced and invisible. Though the marginalised come to occupy the centre in Kinevane’s work, he complicates the idea of the centre itself. This is achieved through the utilization of combined strategies associated with postmodernism and the mechanisms of traditional storytelling. Consequently, Kinevane’s performances can be seen as working toward both involvement and detachment on the part of the spectator. This essay asserts that Kinevane’s solo performances attempt to initiate what Linda Hutcheon terms “aesthetic and even political consciousness-raising” (73), which she argues is a necessary step toward radical change. His theatre reveals how very connected we are to the silenced, forgotten and invisible of this world; offering a serious, sometimes desperate, but also incredibly playful call to reassess our relationship to the centre, and those voices lost to its margins.

Clara Mallon is a drama tutor/lecturer with the School of English, Drama and Film, University College Dublin. She received her BA in Film, Literature and Drama from Dublin Business School and her MA in Theatre and Performance from University College Dublin. She is interested in both the practical and academic aspects of drama and performance. Her role within UCD involves theoretical and practical tutorials in the areas of contemporary postmodern performance, 20 th -century avant-garde theatre and contemporary Irish theatre. She is also a coordinator and instructor for an undergraduate module in Early Irish Drama. Clara’s passion for teaching drama began when she completed her MA and facilitated groups of pre-leaving cert students in weekly drama workshops, through which they devised and produced a number of shows. In her spare time she runs a theatre company that produces yearly pieces of new writing. Clara has written, directed and performed with the company. She also writes performance reviews for an online forum which allows her to engage with the current theatrical landscape in an analytical way. Currently, her main research interest is contemporary Irish theatre and postmodern theatre practices. She is currently working on research for a PhD proposal in the area of contemporary Irish theatre.

1. Winner Angela Butler (Trinity College Dublin)

“Affective Encounter: Repetition and Immersion in The Corn Exchange’s Man of Valour

In 1968, Gilles Deleuze published Difference and Repetition , which set forth one of his most revolutionary proposalsrather than an act that is identical in manner, is a generative, creative, and forward-looking process. Deleuze argues that repetition creates through difference rather than stabilises through replication and thus pursues the notion that difference and repetition have the potential to be both destructive and constructive. This paper explores what transpires when a performance such as The Corn Exchange’s Man of Valour makes use of the destructive and constructive power of difference and repetition. Applying Deleuze’s concepts alongside Mikel Dufrenne’s phenomenologically guided study of aesthetic experience as a theoretical framework, the paper introduces a concept of the phenomenal identificationappointment by the spectator of the actor as an affective “body double”. In Man of Valour , the spectator appoints the sole performer as a body double who performs an action and, through an embodied reciprocity, the spectator experiences the affect. By means of an intensive and affective language, the performance encourages the audience to relinquish the binaries that separate them from the performance and, through phenomenal identification with the performer, invites them to enter the performance, thus subjecting themselves to the forces within it.

Angela Butler is a PhD candidate in the Department of Drama at Trinity College Dublin. Her doctoral research presents a phenomenologically guided study of immersive sensory spectacle performance. Sensory spectacle performance aims to foreground the embodied experience and felt aspects of performance whereby the emphasis is always on the establishment of an affective encounter and communication of sensation. Angela’s thesis considers the connections between the affective experience offered by sensory spectacle performance and the influence of digital culture upon it. Her research interests include performance and digital culture, affect, aesthetic experience, perception, attention, and phenomenology.

2. Second place Cheryl Julia Lee (Durham University)

“The Redirected Gesture in Brian Friel’s Dancing at Lughnasa

The staging of remembrance in Brian Friel’s Dancing at Lughnasa invites us to see the stage as a space for evocation rather than representation. Building on the premise of the lieu de m , as elucidated by historian Pierre Nora, this essay examines the ways in which Friel rewrites the theatrical vocabulary of memory plays in order that he might bring memory out from under the dust of history. In Dancing at Lughnasa , Friel’s particular use of the gesture frees the stage mechanism from its common use of representation and makes of it a symbolic expression of human feeling. Within these revised parameters, memory’s purpose is established as the formal accordance of significance to experience through emotion. Positioning his theatre between reality as we know it and the imagination, Friel establishes conditions that allow for emotional resonance so that meaning might be checked into present, that memory might be salvaged from being mere ruins of the past.

Cheryl Julia Lee is currently a PhD candidate at Durham University. Under the supervision of Dr Patricia Waugh, she is writing on the intersection of aesthetics and ethics in contemporary British and Irish fiction. She received her BA (Hons.) in English Literature from Nanyang Technological University in 2014 and her MPhil in Irish Writing from Trinity College Dublin in 2015.

1. Winner Laura Farrell-Wortman, University of Wisconsin Madison

Mournful Figure in Black”: Grace Gifford Plunkett and the Post-Easter Rising Performance of Widowhood’

On the night of May 3, 1916, Rising leader Joseph Plunkett and artist Grace Gifford were married in the chapel of Kilmainham Gaol and were thus transformed from a relatively obscure couple to two of the most public figures of the Easter Rising. Though the geography and iconography of the 1916 Easter Rising is rife throughout Dublin, it is especially evident at Kilmainham Gaol that some of the most poignant and most romantically effective narratives of the event were embodied by those who lived, not those who died. In this essay I examine Grace Gifford Plunkett’s performativity of political widowhood, with the Irish public and press as her audience. In the moment of her marriage, Grace Gifford was transformed in the public imagination from an artist and activist in her own right into a symbolic figure of gendered political sacrifice. I argue that through the performance of widowhood, and through the media’s creation of her iconography, Gifford Plunkett enacted and embodied the loss of her husband as a symbol of public mourning, and that the highly performative nature of their brief marriage was crucial to the development of the Easter Rising narrative both at the time of the event and in Irish memory.

Laura Farrell-Wortman is a PhD candidate in Interdisciplinary Theatre Studies at the University of Wisconsin Madison. Her research considers the intersection of theatre and political economics in the Republic of Ireland. She is currently at work on a dissertation titled “Theatre After Anglo: Irish Drama Responds to the Great Recession,” exploring theatrical responses to the financial crisis of 2008 to the present. She is the 2016 recipient of the New Scholars Prize from the International Federation for Theatre Research and the Krause Research Fellowship from the American Conference for Irish Studies.

1. Winner Ruud van den Beuken (Radboud University Nijmegen)

“Future Femme Fatales: Prospective Memories and Postcolonial Marriages in Original Mythological Plays at the Dublin Gate Theatre, 1928-1933”

The essay addresses the cultural and political implications of three original mythological plays that were produced at the Dublin Gate Theatre between 1928 and 1933. The author’s analysis of MicheMacLiamm Diarmuid and Grainne (1928), An Philibin’s Tristram and Iseult (1929) and David Sears’s Graine of the Ships (1933) attempts demonstrate that these plays feature marked departures from their thematic roots in Revivalist literature: rather than tap into a lost cultural reservoir and recreate something of the grandeur that was MacLiammAn Philibin, and Sears might be said to have problematized the function of mythology in a postcolonial state in their respective plays. Moreover, their representations of undesirable marriages as political conundrums that might be resolved through rebellion are reinforced through revolutionary narrative structures that can be interpreted as potent memory strategies. By thus analyzing the cultural memories that complicated these emblematic marriages, the author elucidates how such novel reimaginings of mythological tales could absorb the political discourse of postcolonial Irish nationalism without strictly conforming to the conventional rhetoric of insurrection and martyrdom.

Ruud van den Beuken is a PhD candidate at Radboud University Nijmegen, the Netherlands, where he is writing a thesis on the Gate’s original playwrights titled Memory, Modernity and (Inter)nationalist Identities at the Dublin Gate Theatre, 1928-1940 (to be completed in 2016). He is one of the editors of Global Legacies of the Great Irish Famine: Transnational and Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2014) and Irish Studies and the Dynamics of Memory: Transitions and Transformations (Oxford: Peter Lang, 2016, forthcoming). He has published an article on commemorations of the Easter Rising at the Gate Theatre in Irish Studies Review (2015) and will publish two articles on postcolonial identity formation in mythological and historical Gate plays respectively in forthcoming edited volumes.

2. Second place Virginie Girel-Pietka (UniversitLille 3)

“Renewing Cuchulain as a National Icon”

Denis Johnston (1901-1984) grew up in a historical context that continually divided people, at once arousing and challenging their sense of belonging to a nation. After studying law in England and in the USA, he took an interest in experimental European theatre and started a career on the Dublin stage in the 1920s. He later became a war reporter for BBC Northern Ireland during the German raids on Belfast in 1941, and then a war correspondent in North Africa, the Middle East, Italy and Germany, which unsettled his sense of the human. He then summoned Irish dramatists to turn their interests “from the problems of the noble peasant to the question of human survival”. The present article shows that his 1956 pageant of the adventures of Cuchulainn was designed to stage humankind’s postwar trauma in the middle of a festival dedicated to Irish culture. Johnston explored what it meant to be human, superhuman or inhuman so that Cuchulainn’s heroism was reconfigured and renewed in an international context. The dramatist thus enhanced the cultural bonds between Ireland and the rest of the world and bridged the gap between national culture and international post-World War 2 concerns. The article is forthcoming in the next issue of Commonwealth Essays and Studies , dedicated to “post-conflict territories”.

Dr Virginie Girel-Pietka is a research fellow in Irish drama at Lille University. She teaches translation and English for Theatre and Film Studies at the Sorbonne Nouvelle. She completed her PhD. on Denis Johnston’s dramatic works in 2013, under the supervision of Professor Alexandra Poulain. Her dissertation focuses on the way Johnston’s plays address modern man’s identity crisis, the challenges they entail as far as stage language is concerned and the relation between their content and their ever-changing form. She has published papers on Johnston’s experimental playwriting and is now reworking her dissertation into a monograph. She also shares information on the playwright’s works as well as on past and current research about them on a Facebook page entitled “Denis Johnston Irish Playwright”.

3. Third place Brenda Donohue (Trinity College Dublin)

“‘Worthy of the Times, but Resisting the Times’: Critique and Creation in Emma Dante’s Theatre and Working Strategies”

In the Introduction to her 2011 collection entitled Nomadic Theory: The Portable Rosi Braidotti , the feminist critical theorist outlines the centrality of the nexus between critique and creation in the process of “nomadic thought.” In this matrix, which rejects the paralysing tendencies of melancholic philosophy, critical thinking is necessarily accompanied by an affirmative creative impulse that actively engages the “conceptual imagination” in an effort to produce “sustainable alternatives” (6). This paper suggests that Emma Dante’s theatrical oeuvre , along with her own particular and differentiated working practices, are consonant with Braidotti’s vision, where critical thought is intertwined with creative engagement in an attempt to find viable alternatives to the status quo. Firstly, it is argued that Dante is critical of contemporary society on a number of key fronts and, not content with what Braidotti terms “sterile opposition” (6), she employs theatre practice as a medium for the creative identification, and exploration of, pressing social themes such as poverty, marginalisation, heteronormativity, and patriarchal dominance. Secondly, it is suggested that Dante both implicitly and explicitly opposes the traditional understanding of the role “playwright,” which defines the profession in exclusively masculine terms. Like nomadic thought that examines representational regimes that characterise “thought” in narrow ethnic and gendered terms, Dante resists the traditionally biased understanding of her role through a process of intellectual critique and the adoption of differentiated working strategies. Through such processes, Dante both critiques contemporary theatre’s rejection of female playwrights and directors, and creatively engages with the problem of exclusion, thus providing an embodied exemplar of a successful female playwright.

Dr Brenda Donohue graduated from Trinity College in 2013 with a thesis on contemporary female playwrights. She is an active member of the Waking the Feminists movement for whom she is currently coordinating a large research project. This project is a quantitative analysis of Irish theatre in gender terms for the period 2006-2015. It aims to find out how the top ten Arts Council funded theatre organisations represent women in varying roles in the industry. Brenda has been a member of the ISTR since 2009.

Team of the Millennium

The Team of the Millennium was a team chosen in 1999 by a panel of GAA past presidents and journalists. The goal was to single out the best ever 15 players who had played the game in their respective positions, since the foundation of the GAA in 1884 up to the Millennium year, 2000. Naturally many of the selections were hotly debated by fans around the country.

Dan O’Keeffe (Kerry)
Right Corner Back Full Back Left Corner Back
Enda Colleran (Galway) Joe Keohane (Kerry) SeFlanagan (Mayo)
Right Half Back Centre Back Left Half Back
SeMurphy (Kerry) John Joe O’Reilly (Cavan) Martin O’Connell (Meath)
Mick O’Connell (Kerry) Tommy Murphy (Laois)
Right Half Forward Centre Forward Left Half Forward
SeO’Neill (Down) SePurcell (Galway) Pat Spillane (Kerry)
Right Corner Forward Full Forward Left Corner Forward
Mikey Sheehy (Kerry) Tommy Langan (Mayo) Kevin Heffernan (Dublin)

Ireland: The Invention of Tradition

bits of history. The ancient mythology of Ireland is one of its’ greatest assets. The glorious, poetic tales of battles, super humans, demigods and heroes ranks among the best of ancient literature. The book of the Dun Cow, (Lebor na huidre), was written around 1100 and contains stories from the eighth and ninth centuries. The Book of Invasions, (Lebor Gabala), tells how the mythical ancestors of the Irish, the God-like Tuatha DDanann, wrestled Ireland (or Erin) from misshapen Fir Bolg in fantastic

Essay on Ireland and Irishness.

Irish is our native language and the fact that we still learn it in school today, our sense of humour which is exclusive to Ireland, our traditional sports or holidays such as St. Patrick’s Day. But throughout history, many, many things have contributed to our and to shaping the Ireland of today. Since the 1600’s there have been many events which defined Ireland and Irishness such as The Great Potato Famine, the foundation of the GAA, the formation of the Gaelic League and the Act of

2012 Christopher Collins

“Cries of Pagan Desperation’: J.M. Synge and the Discontents of Historical Time”

Christopher completed his Ph.D on the plays of J.M. Synge at Trinity College Dublin in 2012. He is a Trinity College Dublin Gold Medalist. With Mary P. Caulfield he’s editing a collection of essays entitled “Ireland, Memory and Performing the Historical Imagination,” which is forthcoming in 2013. Christopher currently teaches at Trinity College and The Lir: The National Academy of Dramatic Art. He also works as a dramaturg and an applied theatre practitioner.

Ireland Is The Pot Of Gold

At the end of the rainbow, there lies a pot of gold called Ireland. Ireland is a European country thought to be full of luck, but instead it is a country rebuilding its economic identity from a devastating tragedy. This country is a land of kindness, tradition, tenacity, and ineffable beauty. Ireland is the pot of gold in this world with a royal history, a firm government, a reviving economy, a verdurous geography, ancient landmarks, and a wide variety of culture with competitive sports, extraordinary


In 2017, the GAA introduced the ‘mark’ across the board in Gaelic football. Similar to the mark in Australian rules football, a player who catches the ball from a kick-out is awarded a free kick. The rule in full states: “When a player catches the ball cleanly from a Kick-Out without it touching the ground, on or past the 45 m line nearest the Kick Out point, he shall be awarded ‘a Mark’ by the Referee. The player awarded a ‘Mark’ shall have the options of (a) Taking a free kick or (b) Playing on immediately.” In comparison, the Australian rules equivalent requires the ball not to have touched the ground and for the kick to have travelled at least 15 metres. In the experimental rules of 2019 a player can now also call a mark ins


The level of tackling allowed is less robust than in rugby.

Shoulder to shoulder contact and slapping the ball out of an opponent’s hand are permitted, but the following are all fouls:

  • Blocking a shot with the foot
  • Pulling an opponent’s jersey
  • Pushing an opponent
  • Sl >Restarting perform
  • A match begins with the referee throwing the ball up between the four m
  • After a defender has put the ball w >After a defender has committed a foul ins >Officials

A soccer match is definitely overseen by up to 8-10 officials:

  • The referee
  • Two linesmen
  • Sideline official/Standby linesman (often referred to as “fourth official”; inter-county games only)
  • 4 umpires (two at each goal)

The referee is responsible for beginning and stopping play, recording the score, awarding opens and reserving and mailing off players.

Linesmen are in charge of for suggesting the path of range balls for the referee.

The fourth official is responsible for overseeing alternatives, and also indicating the amount of stoppage time (signalled to him by referee) as well as the players substituted using an electronic board.

The umpires are responsible for judging the credit scoring. They indicate to the referee whether a shot was: large (spread both arms), a 45 m conquer (raise one particular arm), a point (wave white-colored flag), sq ball (cross arms) or maybe a goal (wave green flag). A disallowed score is mentioned by bridging the green and white red flags.

Other officials are not appreciative to indicate virtually any misdemeanours for the referee; they may be only allowed to inform the referee of violent perform they have seen that has occurred without the referee’s knowledge. A linesman/umpire is definitely not permitted to inform the referee of technical fouls such as a “double bounce” or perhaps an unlawful pick-up in the ball. Such decisions can easily be made on the discretion with the referee.